Changes to Upper and Lower Canada: 1815-1838
Population Explosion
(A) Lower Canada
Population increase caused by high birthrate
(B) Upper Canada
Settlers from Great Britain came to escape the "Industrial revolution", also referred to as "The great Migration".
US Loyalists left

The Timber Trade
(A) Uses for trees
Timber was always wanted for building
Potash (tree ashes) was used for soap and glass

The End of Competition in the Fur Trade
Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company unite and call themselves the Hudson's Bay Company

Life in Lower Canada:1815-1838

Groups in Lower Canada
In the male dominated society there were French speaking habitants, English speaking merchants, and French speaking professional men.
(A) Habitants (French)
Farmland became less and more narrow
Many faced extreme poverty after 1810

(B) Merchants (English)
Arrived in 1763 when New France became a British colony
All of the merchants were rich and powerful
The merchants made their money by exporting furs and timber
(C) Professional Men (French)
The newest of the prominent groups the Professional Men started after the 1800's
All the professional men wanted to be leaders
A high education was common among the Professional Men

Government in Lower Canada
System established by Constitutional Act of 1791
(A) Chateau Clique
A group that held great governing power
(B) Parti Canadian
People who wanted things to stay the same
Almost exclusively French

Unrest in Lower Canada
(A) Points of view
French speaking and English speaking wanted different things
(B) Appeal in Great Britain
Merchants ask Britain to unite Upper and Lower Canada
Papineau was against Lord Gosford who was a British "puppet"
Papineau was also against the uniting idea
(C) Armed Rebellion in Lower Canada
The Canadians were ready to fight by the end of November
The actual rebellion lasted only a few weeks
The biggest battle on Dec 14 at St. Eustache



Life in Upper Canada: 1815-1838

A New Home
Remained the same as the Constitutional Act of 1791
(A) Family Compact
Elite group in executive council and legislative council
Along with their friends and supporters were known as Tories
Did not want those from the U.S. to be part of Upper Canadian government
Defended tradition and opposed change
Believed power should be in their own hands
Believed the church of England should be powerful in the colony
Were loyal to Great Britain and to the British system of government
(B) The Reformers
The reformers were opposed to the power of the Family Compact
Wanted changes in the society of Upper Canada
Were angered by the society of Upper Canada
Were angered by the attitudes of the Family Compact against Americans
Were divided into moderate and radical groups
(C) Sir Francais Bond Head
Appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada in 1835
Called an election and fought for Tories personally
Reformers were defeated in 1836 election

Armed Rebellion in Upper Canada
Oct 9, 1837 Papineau's Patriots were ready to fight
Mackenzie escaped to the U.S.

Aftermath of the Rebellion
Lower Canada was temporarily worse off than before the rebellion
Legislative Assembly was suspended until 1841