This essay As twenty-first century draws near, there appears has a total of 4640 words and 19 pages.
As twenty-first century draws near, there appears to be in the world an era of unprecedented peace. Contrary to the predictions that the end of the Cold War will bring about the fragmentation of international order and the emergence of multipolar rivalry among atomistic national units, today the world’s major powers enjoy co-operative relations and world economy is progressively liberalising and integrating. The peace and prosperity of the current era, however are sustained by the constant operation of a single factor: American relative power capability (Kupchan, 1998, p. 40).
In this paper, a clear foreign policy strategy for the United States of America in Europe and Eurasia will be outlined. Such an outline should be necessarily made from the perspective of American national interests. America is a global power and it has vital global interests.
The perception of the global interests of America is shaped by the desired future that the American political elite is envisioning. A viable foreign policy strategy then will be simply the roadmap for achieving, to the greatest extent possible, the objectives which are substantiated by that desired future starting from the present condition of the international landscape. The means to achieve these objectives are determined by the relative power capability that America has at present, as well as the capability self-image in the context of the international landscape of the political elite; its world view. The prevailing world view often shapes the motivations of the decision-makers and consequently determines the perceived foreign policy objectives , as well as the very means to achieve these objectives.
Misperception of the behaviour of other actors within the international context leads to erroneous foreign policy motivations on behalf of the decision-making elite, which in turn result in a foreign policy strategy that may be, at best misguided, at worst—catastrophe. That has been the sad, costly lesson from the Cold War—a global low-intensity conflict caused by a mutual misperception of threat with excessively high risk potential for escalating into a thermonuclear war.
To downsize the potentiality of similar perceptually-based geopolitical disasters, a clear understanding of the true motivations of the other actors on the international scene is vital. The true motivations can best be outlined through the inferential analysis of the foreign policy behaviour of the other actors. Once clearly identified, these motivations will determine the response of the United States in terms of political behaviour. The result will be a viable and systematic foreign policy strategy.
The starting point in outlining the American foreign policy strategy will be an overview of the vital American national interests. Then, a critical review of the means to achieve the ensuing objectives is due. As review of American foreign policy aims and objectives for the world as a whole is positively beyond the scope of this paper, the focus of the analysis will be on Europe and Eurasia.
In the preface to a 1997 report by the State Department titled A National Security Strategy for A New Century, President Clinton sets forth a national security strategy to advance American national interests in “this era of unique opportunities and dangers” (“National Security Strategy,” 1997, p. 2). The three core objectives of the strategy are stated as follows:
· “ To enhance our security with effective diplomacy and with military forces that are ready to fight and win.
· To bolster America’s economic prosperity.
· To promote democracy abroad” (“National Security Strategy,” 1997, p. 2).
The implementation of this strategy is guided by the strategic priorities President Clinton has laid out in his 1997 State of the Union Address. These explicitly stated priorities are:
· “ foster an undivided, democratic and peaceful Europe
· forge a strong and stable Asia Pacific community
· continue America’s leadership as the world’s most important force for peace
· create more jobs and opportunities for Americans through a more open and competitive trading system that also benefits others around the world
· increase co-operation in confronting new security threats that defy borders and unilateral solutions
· strengthen the military and diplomatic tools necessary to meet these challenges” (“National Security Strategy,” 1997, p. 6).
Viewed within the context of the international political system, these strategic priorities are consistent with American foreign policy direction described as Pax Americana. The term was coined by George Liska in his book Imperial America. It generally described a foreign policy strategy,
Topics Related to As twenty-first century draws near, there appears
National security, Political terminology, National Security Strategy, Government, Public policy, Geopolitics, Politics, Grand strategy, Geostrategy
Essays Related to As twenty-first century draws near, there appears
Stephen Bantu Biko Stephen Bantu Biko Stephen Biko is known internationally as the founder of the South African Students' Organization (SASO), and a leading force in the South Africa Black Consciousness movement. He fought against the separation between black and whites, called apartheid (the Afrikaans term for separateness). His childhood experiences and character, lead him to became a powerful leader. Steve Biko was born on December 18, 1946, in King William's Town, South Africa. He father was a clerk and his m
The legitimacy of the armed struggle of the Tamil people The legitimacy of the armed struggle of the Tamil people Democracy may mean acceding to the rule of the majority, but democracy also means governments by discussion and persuasion. It is the belief that the minority of today may become the majority of tomorrow that ensures the stability of a functioning democracy. The practice of democracy in Sri Lanka within the confines of a unitary state served to perpetuate the oppressive rule of a permanent Sinhala majority. It was a permanent Sinhala majo
The 1930s The Good Times and The Bad Times The 1930’s: The Good Times and The Bad Times The decade of the 1930’s can be characterized in two parts: The Great Depression, and the restoration of the American economy. America had been completely destroyed due to the Stock Market Crash of 1929. It was up to the government and people of the 1930’s to mend America’s wounds. One man stood up to this challenge, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He promised to fix the American economy, provide jobs, and help the needy. During The Great Depression, th
Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict came about from the notion of Political Zionism. Zionism is the belief that Jews constitute a nation (or a people) and that they deserve the right to return to what they consider to be their ancestral home, land of Israel (or Palestine). Political Zionism, the belief that Jews should establish a state for themselves in Palestine, was a revolutionary idea for the 19th Century. During World War I, Jews supported countries that constituted the Centra
ARAB-ISRAELI WARS ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The first war began as a
Greenpeace History Greenpeace History The year 1996 is a year of celebration for greenpeace. They are celebrating their 25th year anniversary. Everything startde in 1969; Members were part of the ‘’Don’t make a wave’’ committee in vancouver. This committee was founded by Jim Bohlen. He was a forty-three year old American and was a composite-materials researcher. Another founder of the committee was Irving Stowe; he was a Philadelphia lawyer. A jew who had joined the Quaker religion. Paul Cote, a canadian lawyer i
Decline of the American Empire Decline of the American Empire In any era there are different protagonists, playing the same game on a similar board. Like a game of monopoly, there are nations competing to become the foremost leaders of their time. They amass great wealth, powerful armies, and political sway. When the influence and might of these countries transcends the confines of their boundaries, so that they become a presence throughout the world, they become empires. At times, it seems as though one of these empires win
The Watergate Affair The Watergate Affair The Watergate affair was the most significant scandal in United States governmental history. Watergate is defined as a scandal involving abuse of power by public officials, violation of the public trust, and attempted obstruction of justice. The Watergate scandal is named after the building complex in Washington D.C., which was the site of the illegal activities that took place in 1972. In this essay I will explain what Watergate was, a few of the key players (many too nume
European Union European Union In 1967, three European institutions merged. The three institutions were the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). When the three merged, they formed the European Community or EC. On November 1, 1993, the 12 members of the European Community ratified the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty. The twelve members were- Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ire
The Modern KKK The Modern KKK Although the modern Ku Klux Klan, or KKK, is not the same group that terrorized African - Americans in the late 1800s and early 1900s, they still have the same basic goals and ideas. There are many local and regional KKK groups such as the Oregon Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and the New Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan is the national and largest organization, but the only one seeking a political agenda. They are the group that claims they are kee
Title of Paper organizational change and resistance to changeGrade RecTitle of Paper : organizational change and resistance to changeGrade Received on Report : 78 Future generations, looking back on the last years of the twentieth century, will see a contradictory picture of great promise and equally at great uncertainty. The 1990's have all the symptoms of a turning point in world history, a moment when many of the structural givens of social development themselves become problematic and world society undergoes profound reorganization. These developments occu
Comparative Politics Comparative Politics Comparative Politics, typically defined as the study of the internal politics of nations other than our own, is a diverse and complex field. There is no one central tendency or approach which dominates this area of inquiry within political science: various theories, concepts, issues and methodologies are evident in the field. While it is recognized that no simple classification can be made of the literature, we are encouraged to be aware of contrasting approaches, and to en
Foreign PolicyForeign Policy With the world balancing on the edge of destruction, foreign relationships areextremely important to the United States of America. The United States is fullyrecognized as the most powerful nation on the planet earth, and with that power comes adefinitive sense of responsibility. The U.S. needs to pay close attention to thisresponsibility if it hopes to keep its place on the throne as king of the nations. This iswhere the United States foreign policy comes into play. Foreign policy
MEDICAID MEDICAID I. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION History Medicaid is a Federal - State entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low income persons. (O'Sullivan, 1990) Title XIX of the Social Security Act provides for the medical assistance commonly known as Medicaid. (O'Sullivan, 1990) This means-tested entitlement program became part of federal law in 1965. Medicaid makes direct payments to medical providers for their services to eligible persons. It is the largest he
Why Presidentialism is Undesirable in a Newly Founded Democracy Brazil Why Presidentialism is Undesirable in a Newly Founded Democracy: Brazil's Struggle to Liberalize Brazil's transformation from an authoritarian regime to a presidential democracy was a slow and faltered attempt. From the early suggestions of democratic development, there were both administrations that contributed to democratic growth, as well as administrations that opposed this liberalization. This led to an instability in the Brazilian form of democratic government, their economy, and their po
Ulysses S GrantUlysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant rose to command all the Federal armies in the Civil War and lead them to victory. He was respected so much that he went on to be president of the United States for two terms. His time of glory didn't last forever though, he developed cancer and died bankrupt. Ulysses Hiram Grant was born April 27, 1822, in a two room frame house at Point Pleasant, Ohio(Ulysses S. Grant 1). His father, Jesse Root Grant, was foreman in a tannery and a farmer. His mother, Hannah Si
THE NEED FOR EXTREME CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM IN CALIFORNIATHE NEED FOR EXTREME CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM IN CALIFORNIA ORIENTATION FACTORS: I. Basic Introduction and description - Introduce basic sides of Criminal Law and Elaborate II. General History and Development - Discuss the history and modifications of Reform Laws in California III. Main Problems and Concern Stimulants - Point out real life statistics and point out incidents IV. Conclusion - Point out the need for an extreme reform and what can be done SENTENCE OUTLINE I. An analysis of Department
TemagamiTemagami Table of Contents Introduction 2 The History of the Forest 2 The Forests of Canada 3 Part One: The History of the Logger 5 The Canadian Forestry Industry 5 The Ontario Forestry Industry 7 Part Two: Forest Conservation in Ontario 8 Political Activity 8 Temagami 9 Part Three: The Temagami Debate 11 The Forester 11 The Environmentalist 12 Part Four: The Law of the Land 13 Civil Disobedience 13 Government Legislation / Wildlands League Lawsuit 15 Natural vs. Positive Law 16 Conclusion 17 Su
World HungerWorld Hunger *** Warning: the following is a look at World hunger which some people may disagree with, if you would look at non-partisan look at World hunger then keep reading *** Hunger is an issue which many people think lies little importance. Im going to give you a look at World Hunger as a Picture of Poverty, how it affects Third World Nations, and How World Hunger is a disease that is plaguing our society. Food is more than a trade commodity, pleaded Sir John Boydorr in 1946. It is an e
Problems with Gun ControlProblems with Gun Control If the second amendment does not mean what it says, what about the first?, this was the question asked by author, and National Rifle Association member, Bill Clede. In his article Gun Control, Press Control, he warns journalists about the hidden dangers associated with gun control. When dealing with the interpretation of the Constitution, there is two views one can take. The Constitution can be viewed as a living document or in its original understanding. The o
Gun ControlGun Control Gun control has been a hot topic for very long time. People on the anti- gun control side believe that gun ownership is a Constitutional right backed by the Second Amendment. The anti-gun believe that you should be able to posses and own any firearm. They also believe that gun laws only restrict the law abiding citizens. Pro-gun control believe that guns are the backbone to our crime problem. They also believe that gun laws help keep guns of the street and deter crime. The Second Ame
Jury Nullification and Its Effects on Black AmericaJury Nullification and Its Effects on Black America It is obvious that significant improvements have been made in the way that the criminal justice system deals with Blacks during the history of the United States. Blacks have not always been afforded a right to trial, not to mention a fair one. Additionally, for years, Blacks were unable to serve on juries, clearly affecting the way both Blacks and whites were tried. Much of this improvement has been achieved through various court decisions, and
Haig v Agee Power to Revoke PassportsHaig v. Agee: Power to Revoke Passports Whether a passport can be revoked or not has been a major question since the mid- 1800's. Haig v. Agee is a landmark Supreme Court case charging that the Secretary of State can not revoke a passport on the grounds that the power has never been granted by the Congress to the Secretary, and that revoking a passport violates the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution of the United States. Not only does the Secretary of State have implied powers, but r
The Context of The Second AmendmentThe Context of The Second Amendment The interpretation of the Second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America has been a topic of controversy since its acceptance over two-hundred years ago. This controversy stems from the fact that the amendment was written for reasons for the most part that do not have any relevance today. One side argues the amendment void, and the other takes it out of historical context so it portrays the meaning they want. To understand what the second
The world today seems to be going crazy The Unabomber's ManifestoThe world today seems to be going crazy: The Unabomber's Manifesto It was May 25th 1978, Terry Marker was on his usual patrol on campus at the University of Illinois. This earmark package, addressed to an engineering professor at Rensselaer from a material science professor at Northwestern, was found in a parking lot. What seemed like an insignificant misplaced parcel was about to start a reign of terror and the longest manhunt in U.S. history. Officer Marker retrieved the package and began to
Why Do Governments Find It So Hard To Control Public ExpenditureWhy Do Governments Find It So Hard To Control Public Expenditure? Since the 1970's rising public expenditure has become a politically salient issue, with the focus being on the difficulties experienced in trying to control it. In order to answer a question concerning why governments find it hard to control public expenditure it is first necessary to look at the reasons for the growth in public spending. There are three approaches which attempt to give reasons for growing public expenditure which
The Four Political Parties of CanadaThe Four Political Parties of Canada In a country as vast and as culturally diverse as Canada, many different political opinions can be found stretched across the country. From the affluent neighbourhoods of West Vancouver to the small fishing towns located on the east coast of Newfoundland, political opinions and affiliations range from the left wing to the right wing. To represent these varying political views, Canada has four official national political parties to choose from: the Liberals (w
A Victory For ClintonA Victory For Clinton Another four years, another new president? The election of 1996 for president moves closer everyday as the republican Robert Dole, and the president Bill Clinton fight it out. Far behind and by all means out of the race is Ross Perot. The polls show Dole-Kemp behind Clinton-Gore, and the results will stay this way for several key reasons. Clinton will serve another four years as president since Americans know what to expect from him as president. On several key issues, such
Constitutional DemocracyConstitutional Democracy The basic premise of a constitutional democracy is that government has rules and all of the people have voices. Through free and fair elections we elect candidates to represent us. The Constitution of the United States guarantees us the right to do this, and to live democratically. The framers attacked tyrannical government and advanced the following ideas: that government comes from below, not from above, and that it derives its powers from the consent of the governed;
Gays In the MilitaryGays In the Military Very often political institutions reflect the will of society and set the precedent for norms that will be expected of its members. The United States Military is still enforcing archaic policies which threaten to harm the principles our nation was founded upon. The principles of freedom and equality are those that every American holds closest to their heart, that is unless you are in the military and are gay. The issue of gays in the military has developed into a case of whe
Gun ControlGun Control Government 2301 02 November 1996 A Well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms , shall not be infringed. Amendment II, Bill of Rights Constitution of the U.S. The Second Amendment has been a major issue in American politics since 1876. In question is the intent of this Amendment. Was it meant to insure that people in general have arms for personal service, or was it intended to insure arms for military service
Gun Control Is NeededGun Control Is Needed Regulation of guns is a necessary action that needs to be taken in order to save lives. A good definition of gun control is needed to understand the sides and issues. Gun control is an effort to stop the rise in violent crime by strengthening laws on the ownership of firearms. Persons in the group against gun control believe that gun control is wrong, and that it is a violation of constitutional rights. Those in favor of gun control believe that gun control is good, that th
International Relations Of AsiaInternational Relations Of Asia STRATEGIC GEOMETRY This is the only region in the world where so many combinations and permutations of two- three and four- and even two plus four or three plus three- power games can be played on the regional chessboard with all their complexities and variations. introduction The concept of strategic geometry comprises the notion that that the interactions and interconnections between a number of political actors within a particular system of international rela
The United States of America vs Richard M NixonThe United States of America vs. Richard M. Nixon Issue In this case, the court is asked to decide if the president had knowledge\involvement in the Watergate robberies and if he had the right to invoke Executive Privilege. Facts During the campaign of President Nixon's second term, a group of burglars working for the committee to re-elect the President broke into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate office- apartment complex in Washington DC, apparently in sear
Woodrow Wilson and The PresidencyWoodrow Wilson and The Presidency From the beginning of the 1912 election, the people could sense the new ideas of Woodrow Wilson would move them in the right direction. Wilson's idea of New Freedom would almost guarantee his presidential victory in 1912. In contrast to Wilson's New Freedom, Roosevelt's New Nationalism called for the continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions, paralleled by the growth of powerful regulatory agencies. Roosevelt's ideas were founded in the Herbert Croly's
The United States and National Security and Dominant Party in Balance The United States and NationalSecurity, and Dominant Party in Balance of Power The emergence of the United States as a dominant party in balance of power equations is a relatively new phenomenon in world history. New military technology coupled with increased global integration has allowed the United States to reinvent the fundamental assumptions of international diplomacy while propelling itself to the top of the hegemonic stepladder. This positioning was achieved piecemeal during the course o
Nuclear WeaponsNuclear Weapons In its attempts to harness the power of the atom, mankind has itself in the possession of weapons with unbelievable, destructive power. Nations now have the ability to destroy entire cities from hundreds of miles away, in only minutes. These weapons are nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons cost the citizens of the United States billions of dollars in taxes each year, the testing and maintenance of these weapons pose serious health risks, and the actual need for these weapons is not a
Nuclear StrikesNuclear Strikes Scientifically, there is no obstacle for a nuclear or atomic bomb. There are no secrets in Nuclear Science anymore. Anyone with a reasonable physics degree and access to a good technical library could design a workable atomic bomb in less than 6 months, so why hasn't anyone. Maybe there has been, no one is exactly sure. In the last 52 years there has been enough nuclear warheads made to destroy every city in the world and still have thousands left over.(Church 40) This all happen
MexicoMexico Mexico was the site of some of the earliest and most advanced civilizations in the western hemisphere. The Mayan culture, according to archaeological research, attained its greatest development about the 6th century AD. Another group, the Toltec, established an empire in the Valley of Mexico and developed a great civilization still evidenced by the ruins of magnificent buildings and monuments. The leading tribe, the Aztec, built great cities and developed an intricate social, political, a
The Green Party of CanadaThe Green Party of Canada Jarret MacDonald Political Studies 102 G. Germain March 31, 1997 Canada had nine registered political parties in the 1993 federal election. Each one of these parties was trying to place their candidates into Parliament as members. In this particular election there were the usual dominating parties that ran, the Liberals and Conservatives. Also vying for seats were seven minority parties which included the Green Party, the Christian Heritage Party, the National Party of
The Political Career of Richard NixonThe Political Career of Richard Nixon 1. Nixon's Beginning in Politics 2. Emergence in National Politics A. The Hiss Case B. Nixon's Political Obituary C. Resurgence as a presidential candidate 3. The 37th President A. Nixon's Appointment's B. Foreign Policy 1. Nixon's plans for Europe 2. Vietnam C. Domestic Policy 4. Nixon's Second Administration A. Reelection B. Watergate A few weeks after the United States entered World War II a young man named Richard Nixon went to Washington, D.C. In Januar
Power Shifts in Intergovernmental Relations A Result of Fiscal FederalPower Shifts in Intergovernmental Relations: A Result of Fiscal Federalism Fiscal federalism is the result of the states' dependence on the national government for funds. Until 1913, the national government had minimal monetary resources, thus possessing little control over the affairs of the states. Once effected, the Sixteenth Amendment resulted in the amassing of government funds on the national level. This reserve of money enabled the national government to initiate a multitude of national p
The Presidential Debates Between Bill Clinton and DoleThe Presidential Debates Between Bill Clinton and Dole Philip Rubacha October 22, 1996 The presidential debates between democratic President William Clinton and Republican Senator Robert Dole proved to be a game of dodge-ball. Bob Dole fired criticism and attacks while Clinton tried to dodge them. Dole attacked him on most of his ideas, and his tendency to exaggerate. Clinton avoided the lies he made since the 1992 presidential campaign (brought up by Dole, of course) by revealing all that h
Problems in Air Traffic Control and Proposed SolutionsProblems in Air Traffic Control and Proposed Solutions In northern California this summer, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) unintentionally performed it's first operational test of free flight; aviation without direct air traffic control. This was an unintentional experiment because it was a result of a total shut-down of the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). Although Oakland is only the 16th busiest ARTCC, it's responsible for the largest block of airspace of any ATC
Social Security In the Future Maybe NotSocial Security In the Future? Maybe Not It was early spring in the year 2048 and my bithday was coming up this August 26. I would be turning 70 years and retirring. I am not looking forward to it as much as I thought. My whole life I dreamed of moving to Florida and living on the beach when I retired. I planned on traveling a lot seeing the great sites the country has to offer. All of these plans have changed instead my yougest son is putting an addition on his house so that I could move in. I
SocialismSocialism The term socialism is commonly used to refer both to an ideology--a comprehensive set of beliefs or ideas about the nature of human society and its future desirable state--and to a state of society based on that ideology. Socialists have always claimed to stand above all for the values of equality, social justice, cooperation, progress, and individual freedom and happiness, and they have generally sought to realize these values by the abolition of the private-enterprise economy (see CA
The Brady BillThe Brady Bill Introduction The legislative process in the United States Congress shows us an interesting drama in which a bill becomes a law through compromises made by diverse and sometimes conflicting interests in this country. There have been many controversial bills passed by Congress, but among all, I have taken a particular interest in the passage of the Brady bill. When the Brady debate was in full swing in Congress about three years ago, I was still back in my country, Japan, where the
The Presidential Election of 1972The Presidential Election of 1972 The Presidential election of 1972 had two strong candidates, President Richard Nixon and George McGovern. There were many issues which had a great deal of importance to the election. The Vietnam war and the stability of the economy at the time were two main factors. The election ended in one the largest political scandals in U.S. history, being the Watergate break-in, and cover-up, by President Richard Nixon. The Democratic party had a large selection of candida
The New Federalist PartyThe New Federalist Party Part I As the sole member of the New Federalist party, it is with great honors that I now present to you the very first New Federalist platform. PREAMBLE The growing dissension between the two major political parties today has drawn them away from the public's views. It has been determined that the citizens of the United States cannot get what they want from the current major parties. Because of this, a total reconstruction of the current political structure is in dire n
The Right To Keep And Bear ArmsThe Right To Keep And Bear Arms Thursday, 19 August, 1996 A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed (Bill of Rights, Article II). This seemingly simple phrase is probably the source of more debate and argument than any other single sentence in American history. The argument is not black or white, pro or con. Rather, it encompasses many shades of gray. At the one end of the spectrum you have t