Arterial aneurysms are sacs formed by distention of the artery wall, they are life threatening as they can rupture due to a positive feedback in the relationship that described the stress in the wall of an artery. The blowout of an aneurysm can lead to certain death as blood gets lost, mostly internally, in a rapid fashion. There is a great medical need for an intervention that can be used in an emergency situation in order to allow for enough time to perform a more involved surgery. Previous work has included the use of a pouch like material that can be applied around the aneurysm to increase the external pressure and therefore avoid rupture. We intend to pursue a different approach in which the one can cause a decrease in the internal presser instead.

3) The proposed technique is called Percutaneous Transluminal Aortic Prosthesis or PTAP, it is intended to relief the pressure on the inside of an impending or leaking aneurysm. PTAP consists of delivering a spiral constructed polyethylene tube to the damaged area of the artery by using a radio opaque catheter. As the catheter and tube reach the aneurysm, the spiral constructed tube is activated by turning it clockwise in order to increase its cross sectional diameter and as a result, it seals up against the inside wall of the artery on both sides of the aneurysm where the inner wall surface is not damaged.

4) Recent studies showed that aneurysms are responsible for almost the same number of deaths caused by Aids or Breast Cancer. Aneurysms, like any other critical disease, can cost our society not only great sums of money but also many important individual that can be beneficial to our economy. Please see attached illustration.







DESIGN PROJECT

PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL AORTIC PROSTHESIS
AN INTERVENTION FOR A CRISES
SITUATION OF AN
ANEURYSM


















JAMIL ELBANNA
BE 110
PROFESSOR: G.W. SCHMID-SCHONBEIN
MONDAY, OCTOBER 09, 1995













Percutaneous Transluminal Aortic Prosthesis

Abstract
This design/analyses project is intended to investigate the Arterial aneurysm condition in conventional as well as emergency situations. The objective is to find an intervention method that could be used in crises circumstances, and helpfully provide the medical staff with the necessary time to perform the required surgery to the injured artery. In the process, presented is a comprehensive outline of the causes of aneurysms as well as, symptoms, preventive solutions, and finally, the proposed emergency technique, PTAP.


Introduction and background

An aneurysm /an'yriz'm/ is a bulging of the wall of a blood vessel, usually caused by hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure (hypertension). It is sometimes caused by injury, infection, or an inherited weakness in the vessel wall. Aneurysms are most dangerous in the large artery of the heart (aorta). They also occur in smaller vessels and are common in the legs of older patients. A sign of an arterial aneurysm is a pulsating swelling. It makes a blowing murmur that can be heard with a stethoscope. An aneurysm may break open and cause bleeding, or clots may form in the pouch and block smaller vessels. Kinds of aneurysms include aortic aneurysm, bacterial aneurysm, berry aneurysm, cerebral aneurysm, compound aneurysm, dissecting aneurysm, fusiform aneurysm, mycotic aneurysm, racemose aneurysm, Rasmussen's aneurysm, saccular aneurysm, varicose aneurysm, ventricular aneurysm

An artery is any one of the large blood vessels carrying blood with oxygen from the heart to the rest of the body. The artery is a hollow tube enclosed by three layers of tissue. Most of the arteries in the body are about 4 mm in diameter. The muscle walls of arteries keep the blood moving away from the heart and nerves that supply the arteries direct the flow of blood. The arterial wall is the fiberlike wall of the vessels that move blood with oxygen from the heart to structures throughout the body. The arteries, like the veins, are cylindrical tubes. They are enclosed by three layers of tissue: the inner layer (tunica intima), the middle layer (tunica media), which makes up most of the arterial wall, and the outer layer (tunica adventitia). The middle layer in smaller arteries is almost entirely muscular. It is more elastic in larger arteries. The thickness of the outer layer changes with the location of the artery. In protected areas, as the stomach and skull, the outer layer of the arteries is very thin. In more exposed locations,