Art Notes
Renaissance (1300-1500)
§ Dimensions of nature


§ Rebirth


§ Science -> technology


§ Discoveries beyond Europe


§ Paint more naturally-> using perspective /_ (triangle)


§ Illusion of space


§ Art was based on the visual world


§ Art was based on mathematical physics


§ Earth was no longer thought to be the centre of the Universe


§ Metallurgy and exploration of the world


§ Camera Obscura-> image upside-down through light and an aid to painting


§ Mathematical theories can explain all human experience


Baroque (1580-1750)


§ Reaction to Mannerism and a departure from the Classical values of the Renaissance


§ Grandiose quality, extravagant and ornate


§ Contained dramatic theatrical effects and illusion


§ Contained dramatic theatrical effects and illusion


§ Effect of light -> emphasis on space, volume, movement and illusion


§ Theatrical, dynamic and emotional


§ Most art had been connected with religion and classical antiquity, but now artists were commissioned to produce work also for luxury-loving European kings, emperors, princes and rich merchants.


§ EG- Judith and Holofernes





Rococo (1700-1790)





§ Born in Paris


§ Flippant, light-hearted, trivial, pretty, gay, frivolous


§ Emphasised a linear quality and an excess of motifs based on flowers, and foliage, shells, scrolls and ribbons.


§ Rhythmical compositions in a festive mood set in classical landscapes


§ Decorative and nonfunctional.


Romanticism (1800-1900) and Neo-Classicism (1780-1840)





§ Neoclassicism was a revival of classic antiquity, drawing inspiration from ancient Rome and Greece and other tales of heroism.


§ Romanticism not a style but rather an attitude of the mind revealing itself in many ways. Romanticists drew from literature, past and present.


§ Camera Obscura -> did not kill painting but invigorated it, as it allowed artists to broaden their subject matter. Artists could now paint from photos, getting better and more accurate compositions.


§ Photography allowed people to capture images from their travels and return to show others the marvels they saw.


§ Around this time period, archeologists were uncovering many ancient artifacts and making major scenes and sites.


§ Romanticism-entangled with personal values and experiences and interested in the battles between ‘humanity’ and ‘nature’.





Impressionism (1860-1900)


§ Focus of attention ->light


§ Subject matter was mainly of the outdoors, bringing freshness and spontaneity to real scenes from daily life that included the boulevards of Paris, the coast, sleepy villages, children playing in the park, events like picnics, regattas or horse races, or indoors, social like in cafes and theatres.


§ Impressionists looked to contemporary people at work and play for subject matter.


§ Photography-Daguerre presented his invention in 1939


§ Photography meant that painting was liberated from the constraints of imitating reality as closely as possible.


§ The camera recorded reality with a fidelity to truth and detail, which no painter could equal. This meant that the artist was free to give his own personal interpretation of reality.


§ Photography changed man’s visual awareness, because for the first time it gave him a true and realistic image of people, places and things outside his own environment and perspective.


Fauvism (1898-1910)





§ Born in France


§ Fauvists painted directly from nature, however their works were invested with a strong expressive reaction to the subjects they painted


§ Radical approach with respect to the use of colour as a medium of expression rather than a tool in replicating what was seen


§ The Fauvists carried on from the precedent set by the Impressionists in relation to the use and application of colour. Their intent was not to realistically represent their world, but instill emotional qualities derives from their subject matter.


§ The Fauves painted with brilliant colour, as a photograph could not obtain such vibrance.


§ The invention of the paint tube-artists no longer confined to their studios


§ Did not have to paint renditions of people or scenes from memory.


§ The Fauves were influences by technology, in the form of transportation, photography and the paint tube.


Expressionism (1908- )





§ The Bridge School was founded in 1905 and the Blue Rider School 1911-1914.


§ The Blue Rider School was more spiritual and individualistic. They were not greatly concerned with the outside world.


§ The Bridge was more concerned with humanity and its decay through technology and modernisation.


§ Primitive masks from Africa and Oceania came to Europe at the start of the 20th Century and influenced the expressionists. This art was ‘untutored’. In a way, the expressionists believed it to be more authentic than academic art and so attempted to create simple, primitive art.


§ Saw alienation, isolation and