This essay A.P. HISTORY BOOK REPORT #2 has a total of 784 words and 4 pages.
A.P. HISTORY BOOK REPORT #2
December 2, 2003
A.P. U.S. History
Sally Hemings by Barbara Chase‑Roboud is biographical novel about the life of Thomas Jefferson’s slave mistress, Sally Hemings. The story spans two continents, sixty years and seven presidencies. The story starts in Paris at the dawn of the French Revolution when Thomas Jefferson was serving as a United States ambassador. A widower, Jefferson had brought his oldest daughter, Martha, to Paris with him, but he then decided to bring over his youngest daughter, Polly, with him as well. Fourteen‑year‑old Sally Hemings accompanied Polly to Paris as her maid. It was in Paris that Thomas Jefferson’s and Sally Hemings’ infamous love affair began. Sally Hemings enjoyed her life in Paris, she was given the finest clothing and was allowed to study with Jefferson’s daughters. However her fairy tale life in Paris would soon come to an end when Thomas Jefferson was called back to the United Sates. Sally could have opted not to return to America with Jefferson, she could have chosen freedom on the basis that slavery had been abolished on French soil. However, Sally Hemings did return to Virginia and slavery with Thomas Jefferson. She spent the rest of her life on Thomas Jefferson’s plantation, Monticello, in Virginia. Even after Jefferson’ s death, when she was granted her freedom she stayed on the Monticello property.
Thomas Jefferson is the most important figure in Sally Hemings’ life. His every action affects her. Aside from being Sally’s only lover and the father of her children, Thomas Jefferson inspired his slave mistress, he gave her a reason to live. Sally Hemings gave up her freedom for Thomas Jefferson, and never regretted it for a minute. The novel follows the life of Sally Hemings, and therefore follows the life of Thomas Jefferson. It allows you to see the personal side of Jefferson’s political career, as well as experience his personal life.
Sally Hemings is the focus of the novel, and its most important character. The book follows her life from beginning to end and focuses on the impact she had on Thomas Jefferson’s life and actions. Sally gave up her freedom and her children’s freedom for love. The novel allows you to see life through the eyes of a United States president’s slave mistress. The reader is allowed to experience what life was like for Sally Hemings, the way she saw it, not the way everyone else saw it. It is through Sally Hemings’ character that the reader experiences the world.
Sally’s brother, James Hemings, was also a very influential part of her life. James is first introduced to the reader as Thomas Jefferson’s personal slave in Paris. Sally had a very close relationship with James, in Paris they would always talk about what they were going to do with their freedom when they got it. James was very strong‑willed, and the only thing he ever wanted was his freedom. When Jefferson was called back to the United States, James had not planned to return with him, he was going to take his freedom and stay in France. However, after learning of Sally’s pregnancy, and her choice to return with Jefferson, James gave up his freedom and returned to the United States as a slave. James was eventually granted freedom six years later, and tried to make Sally fight for hers. Sally refused to leave Thomas Jefferson, so James went and pursued the free life he had always dreamed of.
Woven into the this complicated love story is a first hand account of the United States’ revolution. Figures such as Aaron Burr, Dolley and James Madison, John and Abigail Adams, and John Trumbull appear throughout the story. The novel allows the reader to see the personalities, as well as the principles, of these famous historical figures. The reader gets an inside look at all of the political rivalries of the time, as well how other prominent historical figures viewed Thomas Jefferson. However, the novel does not limit its self to figures such as George Washington and Ben Franklin. The book also exposes the reader to the slave rebellions of Gabriel Prosser and Nat Turner, and shows the effect they had on the slave community. Sally Hemings and her sons actually went to the
Topics Related to A.P. HISTORY BOOK REPORT #2
American slaves, Thomas Jefferson, African-American people, Slavery in the United States, Randolph family of Virginia, Sally Hemings, James Hemings, Hemings, JeffersonHemings controversy, Madison Hemings
Essays Related to A.P. HISTORY BOOK REPORT #2
America Fortress of Freedom America Fortress of Freedom Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. -Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, 1863 Created equal and free, unlike in many other countries were you are born either royalty or a peasant. Yes, they did have slaves when the Declaration of Independence was written and signed. It was normal every day life to have slaves; they didn't see
African and Native American Slavery African and Native American Slavery Scot Ferguson 11-12-96 period 2 The 1500's, a time of discovery, was when the Europeans came to dominate most of the New World. The Europeans traveled to Africa and captured Africans to help develop their land and satisfy their need for power. I feel that the treatment of the Indians and Africans by the Europeans was completely unjustifiable. While the Indians and Africans were less technologically advanced and the Europeans were uneducated, in this particula
Beloved Beloved In the Novel Beloved, by Toni Morrison unmasks the horrors of slavery, and depicts its aftermath on African Americans. The story is perfect for all who did not experience nor could imagine how it was to be an African American in America circa the 1860's. Beloved lends a gateway to understanding the trials and tribulations of the modern African American. The Novel has many things that occur that are very striking, most of which have to deal with the treatment of the African Americans. Th
Black and White Black and White Following the Civil War, just prior to the turn of the century, many American novelist were writing more freely of the previous slave culture. Two of these writers being Mark Twain and Charles Chesnutt. Mark Twain was a popular “white” author by this time. Charles Chesnutt, the son of free blacks, decided to pursue a dream of becoming an author in order to remove the spirit of racism. By studying these authors in particular, the views of a white raised in the slave holding south
Ebonics Ebonics INTRODUCTION This is an English exam paper prepared for the EVU2-EDB course at Niuernermik Ilinniarfik, Nuuk. The main topic of this paper is the USA, and I have chosen to concentrate on a fairly new issue, the language know as Ebonics. There have always been changes in the English language. This is how the language came about and evolved from standard British English to American English. During the last few years, as the world has become more sensitive to the rights of minorities, wome
The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation The emancipation proclamation was issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War, declaring all slaves within any State, or designated part of a State... then... in rebellion,... shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free. The states affected were enumerated in the proclamation; specifically exempted were slaves in parts of the South then held by Union armies. Lincoln's issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation marked a radical ch
Paul Laurence Dunbar Paul Laurence Dunbar by English 102 August 4, 1995 Outline Thesis: The major accomplishments of Paul Laurence Dunbar's life during 1872 to 1938 label him as being an American poet, short story writer, and novelist. I. Introduction II. American poet A. Literary English B. Dialect poet 1. Oak and Ivy 2. Majors and Minors 3. Lyrics of Lowly Life 4. Lyrics of the Hearthside 5. Sympathy III. Short story writer A. Folks from Dixie (1898) B. The Strength of Gideon and Other Stories (1900) C.
Proposal for Reparations of African Americans Proposal for Reparations of African Americans Teresa Burk Due to the fact that many African-Americans cannot trace their genealogy back more than three generations, It would be extremely difficult to distinguish between those who are descended from Freemen and those descended from Slaves. Therefore, although it should have some impact on reparations, we must take into account those who cannot trace their genealogy( approximately 3/4th of African- Americans). We also must remember that in essenc
Republiacns Unfavorable Acts Caused The Rise of The KKK Republiacns! Unfavorable Acts Caused The Rise of The KKK The years after the civil war were frustrating times for the Americans. New laws and rules were posted for which to abide by and due to the outcome of the civil war, the people from the south had now to accept the new slavery laws issued by the political parties and congress. This created turmoil amongst both northerners, who mostly were against slavery, and southerners. This was also true for both political parties that consisted of the
The Influence of Black Slave Culture on Early America The Influence of Black Slave Culture on Early America The Black slaves of colonial America brought their own culture from Africa to the new land. Despite their persecution, the slave culture has contributed greatly to the development of America's own music, dance, art, and clothing. Music It is understandable that when Africans were torn from their homes and families, lashed into submission , and forced into lifelong slave labor, they would be, on the most part, resentful and angry. Various f
William Christopher Handy William Christopher Handy Handy was an American black composer and compiler of BLUES music. He was born in Florence, Alabama. He was educated at the Negro Agricultural and Mechanical College near Huntsville, Alabama. He was the son of former slaves. He was educated in the public schools and by his father and paternal grandfather, both of whom were clergymen. Handy was the first to bring the African- American blues to the general publics attention with the publication of his MEMPHIS BLUES in 1
MoviesMovies Each war had a serious impact on the individuals surrounding it, whether it be the soldiers, Indians, slaves, women, children, and even the entire feeling of the countryside. The commonality in each of the three films, Last of the Mohicans, Mary Silliman's War, and Glory, was war, but each centered on a different segment of the population and the different wars of the time period. The French and Indian War was depicted in the Last of the Mohicans, showing the trials the settlers of
Have you ever seen anything in your life that just seemed to good to b Have you ever seen anything in your life that just seemed to good to be true? Have you ever saw something at a restaurant menu that looked like a double dose of all that but it turned out to be toe up from the floe up. The point that I am trying to reach is that western expansion was not good for America. The reason why I say this is because a lot of people got caught up in the western myth. The western myth is a belief that all will profit, all would be equal, and all will be free. Hays Ja
Auschwitz Auschwitz Auschwitz began as a barracks camp in the town of Oswiecim, for the polish army in the early 1930's. Germany then captured Poland and needed another location for Polish political prisoners. In 1940, the German SS sent a commission to Oswiecim to see if the barracks there could be used. The first inspection reported that it could not be used, however, a later inspection stated that after a few minor changes it would be useable. On May 4, 1940 Rudolf Hoss officially established it as a
THE CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR THE CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR The tragic ‘fireball in the night’ imagined by Jefferson had finally rung. The Missouri Compromise had failed. Proslavery and antislavery civilians clashed in the streets and took up arms. Thousands of Northerners were willing to die for their beliefs. The Civil War had begun. The states were at war with each other. This dividing battle between the North and the South was unavoidable. The Civil War was caused by economic, political and moral problems. It all starte
Cottons Impact on the United States Before the Civil WarWith the end o Cotton’s Impact on the United States Before the Civil War With the end of the War of 1812, few people in the United States envisioned a civil war in the future. With a developing Western section of the country, the future looked bright for a stable growing economy based on extraction of resources (agriculture, timber, and various resources in the ground). With the shipping resources of New England and financial centers in the North, agriculture and extraction of resources seemed to be the found
Mark Twain Mark Twain In his famed novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain writes a classic American adventure story, complete with moral dilemmas, the theme of an individual against society, and the proverbial journey into maturity. However, the focus of his book is not on the adventure itself, but rather on the pseudo father-son relationship that springs up between Jim and Huck during their pilgrimage down the Mississippi. Huck, an uncivilized, pragmatic child, has had little if any contro
ImmigrantsImmigrants Should the United States take on more immigrants? Is the United States hurting from immigration problems? These issues have been debated on for generation. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, approximately 300,000 illegal immigrants enter the United States annually (Cozic 12). This large number of immigrants causes many different emotions. For some Americans, immigration is an adversity. Many Americans past and present have reacted to immigrants with fear: fear
Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Thesis: Although many people believe that affirmative Action is a form of racism, it is actually used to help minorities find employment in an otherwise racist world. “In the United States, equality is a recurring theme. It has flared into a fervent moral issue at crucial stages of American history: The revolutionary and Jacksonian Period, and the New Deal. In each era, the legitimacy of American society is challenged by some set of people unhappy with the degree of equality”
RacismRacism Racism is an evil that can destroy socitiy. America is a nation of immigrants and, as such it¹s a diverse society where racism and prejudice have no place. Everyone came here from somewhere. Our country is based on the phrase, ³All men are created equal.² We are a diverse nation where racism and prejudice are unwarranted. Racism hurts people. Racism has been present in our world for more than 3,000 years. Take African-Americans, before the Million Man March, Martin Luther King and the civ
The Life of Abraham LincolnThe Life of Abraham Lincoln Although other states such as Indiana lay claim to his birth, most sources agree that Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in a backwoods cabin in Hodgeville, Kentucky. In an interview during his campaign for the presidency in 1860 Lincoln described his adolescence as the short and simple annals of the poor. (p 30). His father Thomas was a farmer who married Nancy Hanks, his mother, in 1806. Lincoln had one sister, Sarah, who was born in 1807. The Lincoln
Christopher ColumbusChristopher Columbus In 1451, a boy named Christopher Columbus (See Appendix A), who was born in Genoa, became a sailor and discoverer of a new continent. He spoke Castilian with a little Portuguese. Although he received little education, he worked with his father, who was a weaver and had a wine shop. During Columbus' youth, he sailed in between his looming duties, shipping and receiving wool and wine for his father. When Columbus was in his twenties, he joined other exporting fleets, traveling
Capital PunishmentCapital Punishment Law&Justice Class Senior Year Mr. Carlisle Law and Justice 18 March 1995 The theory a life for a life is as old as civilization itself (McCiellan 9). The development of civilizations established what we call justice today. Capital punishment, the execution of a criminal convicted of a crime, or the legal taking of the life of a criminal, can be divided into three categories: first, crimes against the person; second, crimes against property; and third, crimes which endanger
History of Turkish Occupation of Northern KurdistanHistory of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan. Eric jensen Poli. Sci. (Third World Politics) 11/27/96 Since 1984, and especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news scene. That state is the Republic of Turkey and it's primary troubles stem from the past seven decades of acrimonious policies directed at the indigenous ethnic Kurds. The main problem, now, is the Kurdish pop
Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson DavisAbraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis Sunny Herren American History Mrs.Lynn 5 February 1997 In this report I compare two great historical figures: Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president, steered the Union to victory in the American Civil War and abolished slavery, and the first and only president of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis. Abraham Lincoln was the President of the Union, and Jefferson Davis struggled to lead the Confederacy to independence in the U.S. Civil War. Lincoln wa
All Men Created EqualAll Men Created Equal America has undergone incredible hardships as a nation. No issue has had more impact on the development of the American definition of freedom than the issue of slavery. Did the Constitution specify which men were created equal? Surprisingly enough the phrase all men are created equal with certain inalienable rights did not mean what it does today. The nation was divided on the issue of slavery and the rights of the black man in its early stages as a growing republic. Abra
The Civil WarThe Civil War The American Civil War was a grave turning point in the history of North America. It was a conflict that pitted the Northern states of the American union against the Southern states. The war raged for four years, from 1861 to 1865, and was marked by some of the fiercest military campaigns in modern history. In this essay, you will learn the causes of the American Civil war, as well as the after effects of the war. It has been extremely hard for historians to exactly pin-point the c
American Self Perception vs The TruthAmerican Self Perception vs. The Truth Lee Greenwood, a song writer, describes the emotion involved in American self-perception in a song by saying, I'm proud to be an American. For at least I know I'm free. Freedom is the founding pillar of the American self- perception. Self-perception is the culmination of how one views oneself. Other aspects which make up American self-perception are wealth, power, and the pursuance of happiness. Self-perceptions, whether confined to the individual or conf
Personal Freedom In the United States of AmericaPersonal Freedom In the United States of America No other democratic society in the world permits personal freedoms to the degree of the United States of America. Within the last sixty years, American courts, especially the Supreme Court, have developed a set of legal doctrines that thoroughly protect all forms of the freedom of expression. When it comes to evaluating the degree to which we take advantage of the opportunity to express our opinions, some members of society may be guilty of violat
Freedom Through The PressFreedom Through The Press Tears streamed down a broken face That stared to the ground where his father lay At lexington was he dying this day For a battle lost, and a war begun. In a young boys hand, A father lifted his head To look at a son, so confused and afraid Who understood not, for what his father bled Why he would fight, What reason for death. And so as they looked eye to eye The boys innocent lips formed the question, why? Then With inhuman strength, A father lifts dying fingers to sky
Lipset's American CreedLipset's American Creed Liberty. Egalitarianism. Individualism. Populism. Laissez-faire. These five concepts embody the American creed as described by author Seymour Martin Lipset. Lipset feels that this American creed is representative of an ideology that all Americans share. Lipset's argument is on shaky ground, however, when scrutinized under the microscope of race. Racial relations in this country do much to undermine the validity of Lipset's argument, especially the concepts of egalitar
MexicoMexico Mexico was the site of some of the earliest and most advanced civilizations in the western hemisphere. The Mayan culture, according to archaeological research, attained its greatest development about the 6th century AD. Another group, the Toltec, established an empire in the Valley of Mexico and developed a great civilization still evidenced by the ruins of magnificent buildings and monuments. The leading tribe, the Aztec, built great cities and developed an intricate social, political, a
The Republican Party Overall Issues 1860-1868The Republican Party: Overall Issues, 1860-1868 The Republican party during the 1860's was known as the party more concerned with civil rights and the common American. This came about through a series of sweeping changes in the party that occurred during two major time periods: the 1860-1864 and 1864-1868. The changes in the party reflected the attitude in the North as opposed to the confederate, democratic South. The main issue that divided the two was slavery and its implications for control
Causes Of Civil War Causes Of Civil War As members of the Futurist of America Association, we have been assigned to look specifically at the cause of the American Civil #War. There are five aspects that could of led to the Civil War and they are Westward Movement, Social Change, Froeign Policy Development, Government/Politics Development, and Economic Development. Out of the five aspects, Economic Development is the best reason for the eventual Civil War. First, Westward Movement could of led to American Civil War
The Seminole The Seminole As the United States is a nation made up of people from many nations, so the Seminole is a tribe made up of Indians from many tribes. (Garbarino 13) The Seminole are the indigenous people living in southeastern America. They lived in what is now Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Mississippi. The Seminole had a Muskogean language of the Hokan-Siouan stock. (Bookshelf) The Indian tribes found in the southeast were the Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw,
The Different Conceptions of the Veil in The Souls of Black Folk The Different Conceptions of the Veil in The Souls of Black Folk For now we see through a glass, darkly -Isiah 25:7 W.E.B. Du Bois's Souls of Black Folk, a collection of autobiographical and historical essays contains many themes. There is the theme of souls and their attainment of consciousness, the theme of double consciousness and the duality and bifurcation of black life and culture; but one of the most striking themes is that of the veil. The veil provides a link between the 14 seeming
Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau The Great Conservationist, Visionary, and Humanist He spent his life in voluntary poverty, enthralled by the study of nature. Two years, in the prime of his life, were spent living in a shack in the woods near a pond. Who would choose a life like this? Henry David Thoreau did, and he enjoyed it. Who was Henry David Thoreau, what did he do, and what did others think of his work? Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts on July 12, 1817 (Thoreau 96), on his gran
Thomas Jefferson The Man The Myth and The MoralityThomas Jefferson - The Man The Myth and The Morality Thomas Jefferson was a man of the greatest moral character who has been excoriated routinely over the last 30 years by historical revisionists and presentists. His commitment to America and his vast contributions to the framing of society as it is today are overlooked in favor of base analysis of his character that, while not flawless, is that of a morally upright person who has deeply held convictions and lives by them. Jefferson was born to
Lincoln Abraham 1809-65 16th president of the United States 1861-65 wh Lincoln, Abraham (1809-65), 16th president of the United States (1861-65), who steered the Union to victory in the American Civil War and abolished slavery. Early Life Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, near Hodgenville, Kentucky, the son of Nancy Hanks and Thomas Lincoln, pioneer farmers. At the age of two he was taken by his parents to nearby Knob Creek and at eight to Spencer County, Indiana. The following year his mother died. In 1819 his father married Sarah Bush Johnston, a kindly wid
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln by Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, was very important to the past history of our country. He helped to abolish slavery in this country and kept the American Union from splitting apart during the Civil War. At 22, he moved to New Salem, Illinois. With his gift for swapping stories and making friends, he became quite popular and was elected to the Illinois legislature in 1834. In his spare time, he taught himself law and became a lawyer. In 1847, he was e
Booker T Washington Fighter for the Black Man Booker T. Washington: Fighter for the Black Man Booker T. Washington was a man beyond words. His perseverance and will to work were well known throughout the United States. He rose from slavery, delivering speech after speech expressing his views on how to uplift America's view of the Negro. He felt that knowledge was power, not just knowledge of books, but knowledge of agricultural and industrial trades. He felt that the Negro would rise to be an equal in American society through hard work.
Daniel Webster Daniel Webster Daniel Webster contributed a large potion of the Civil War. To begin, he was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire on January 18, 1782. His parents were farmers so many people didn't know what to expect of him. Even though his parents were farmers, he still graduated from Dartmouth College in 1801. After he learned to be a lawyer, Daniel Webster opened a legal practice in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1807. Webster quickly became an experienced and very good lawyer and a Federalist
HARRIET TUBMAN HARRIET TUBMAN Harriet Tubman was born 1821in Dorchester county. She was one of eleven children, and her parents were slaves. At the age of seven she was hired to do housework and to take care of white children on nearby farms. In 1944 she married John Tubman, a free black. In 1949 she escaped to the north to freedom by following the north star. Before the outbreak of the American civil war in 1861 she made 19 journeys back to lead other slaves and her parents to freedom along the clandestine r
Book SummaryContents Book Summary/Contents Andrew Jackson, in the author’s words, was mild, polite, polished, benevolent, and democratic. It would not be in anyone’s favor to question the validity of the his words, but to understand them with unrestrained faith in those words will help to insure complete insight into the book. Moreover, this book stresses the immortal fact that Jackson’s private life had as much irony and agony as his political/outside life did. With those factors understood, Jackson’s life and t
Book Report The Art of Rock and Roll Book Report: The Art of Rock and Roll The book “The Art of Rock and Roll” by Charles T. Brown basically proposes methods for analyzing music and anyone who reads the books should be able to develop techniques for listening to music and making legitimate statements about it. It treats rock and roll as a serious art form and traces it cultural roots throughout the book. Chapter one discusses the elements of rock and makes four assumptions. Assumption one states that rock is a legitimate art form.
Introduction Introduction Few episodes in history are more painful to Americans than the Civil War, fought between the North and the South. This biography, Great American Generals - Robert E. Lee, by Ian Hogg, takes the reader through the life of one of the greatest heroes of that war, Robert E. Lee. It is a thorough, in depth record of the life of Lee and begins with a detailed account of his family history and his birth, through his college years, military experience and his work in later life to his deat
Only in a time when the pressure of the world amounts to angst and the Only in a time when the pressure of the world amounts to angst and the fight for freedom can a world advance in it's literary achievements. A writer, just like an artist, builds his creations from the mood and settings of the surrounding atmosphere. In the first half of the twentieth century, the atmosphere was filled with resources to stimulate literary creativity, such as the second World War and the Great Depression (Roache 102: 14). The social genre of the time gave way to the broad appeal
Outline Outline Thesis: In Breakfast of Champions, Kurt Vonnegut portrays a prepackaged, robotic society, and an American culture plagued with despair, greed, and apathy. I. Introduction II. Social problems A. Racism B. Commercialism and materialism C. Violence D. Lack of culture E. Greed III. Destruction of America A. Pollution B. Destruction for wealth IV. Conclusion Vonnegut's portrayal of society in Breakfast of Champions The country Vonnegut takes us through has been plasticized, prepackaged, and
The Role of Prejudice In The Merchant of Venice The Role of Prejudice In The Merchant of Venice This paper discusses the subject of prejudice in the William Shakespeare play, The Merchant of Venice. I. Introduction William Shakespeare's satirical comedy, The Merchant of Venice, believed to have been written in 1596 was an examination of hatred and greed.The premise deals with the antagonistic relationship between Shylock, a Jewish money-lender and Antonio, the Christian merchant, who is as generous as Shylock is greedy, particularly with his
What does the word bias mean Bias is a mental predilection or prejudic What does the word bias mean? Bias is a mental predilection or prejudice. The essay The View from the Bottom Rail by James West Davidson and Mark Hamilton Lytle opened my eyes on how American history could be looked at as one sided and even bias. Even today there is still bias in America. In today’s society, racism and stereotyping occur in all aspects of life. It can occur because of one’s gender, race, religion, culture, economic status, etc. It even occurs amongst our finest, our law enfor