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Jackson was a protector of democracy for "Equal protection and equal benefits" for all men. He wanted to be rid of any organization or institution promoting specific privilege to anyone.
Jackson felt that over time, the offices of the federal system had grown mold to a uniform party. He proceeded to seek diversity amongst officers, and while he removed no more officials than Jefferson, he succeeded in diversifying the system.
Since he believed that the power belonged to the people, Jackson instituted a new method for selecting presidential candidates. While previously there was held a Congressional Caucus, Jackson initiated a national nominating convention in order that the people might elect their candidates.
Jackson responding to challenge:
Jackson was presented with the problem of dealing with angry South Carolinians who were angered by tariffs.
His vice-president, Calhoun, a native to the protesting state, resigned from the vice-presidency to aid his state. He aided in preventing their secession from the Union, as he joined the pro-nullification group of elected officials.
The governor of South Carolina, Hayne, led the nullifiers, and Calhoun took his seat in the Senate
Jackson was infuriated with Calhoun, who realizing there was no wide-spread support for nullification [as time progressed], was bailed out by Henry Clay. Clay devised the plan that would lower the tariff eventually back to its original value.
As president, Jackson saw a distinct separation of federal and state government.
When the Maysville Road Bill came into existence, the funding for the pike was to come partially from the Federal government. Jackson chose to veto this proposal, though, because the building of the road was a project within the state, and should therefore be funded by the state that it benefits.
While his intention was proper, the veto came under scrutiny because while the construction was an intrastate project it was to be part of a nationally benefiting road. Jackson's vetoes, however, were for the most part accepted.
Movement of the Indians west of the Mississippi
Jackson possessed a certain hatred for the Indians, which came to be the national attitude; rather than the original belief that they were civilized savages, they were now considered uncivilized savages incapable of being tamed.
White settlers wanted removal of Indians for fear and, more importantly, their land.
Militias formed in the West and were very successful. In the South, many people wanted to allow the Indians that were civilized, like the Cherokee, to remain on their land. The eventual result was the passage of the Removal Act, which provided the necessary funds for the relocation of Indians to the West.
The Cherokee then found favor in their appeal to the Supreme Court (Marshall and Jackson were long time foes), however, Marshall didn't enforce the ruling, and the Cherokee were eventually dissolved due to Jackson's hatred. Some escaped to North Carolina, others took money to leave, and the remaining majority of all were forced from their homes [at bayonet point] to make a long "trek of tears" to their new homes, west of the Mississippi.
The Seminoles, however, were partially stubborn. Some left for relocation, while others joined escaped slaves to rise against the government. While unsuccessful, we never managed to totally relocate them.
Jackson dismantles the Federal bank
Seeing that the National Bank was a monopoly, Jackson set out to destroy it.
Jackson was successful enough in winning people to his side of the issue that he forced the bank's president, Biddle, to take measure. Biddle responded by winning over some of Jackson's followers along with certain influential people.
Biddle applied for renewal of the charter for the bank four years early, and it passed Congress but was of course vetoed and deemed by Jackson to be "unconstitutional."
Congress was unable to override the veto, and so the issue became a political determinant in the following presidential election. Jackson was reelected, though, and continued to "destroy the monster" by taking out of it the federal funds. Needing the approval of the secretary of treasury, it took Jackson three men to find someone to cooperate.
Jackson then began to cutting funds from the bank and putting them in "pet banks." It got to the point where the National Bank had poor credit to loan. Businesses hence suffered, and Biddle and Jackson blamed it on each other. Biddle, feeling the suffering would result in rechartering, was
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Second Party System, Nullification Crisis, Presidency of Andrew Jackson, Secession in the United States, Andrew Jackson, Nullification, John C. Calhoun
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