After the Civil War, American cities grew at an astounding rate. The result
was huge problems that no one knew how to solve. Many immigrants from
Europe migrated to New York. Wealthy people lived in nice houses. Middle
class lived in Row houses or apartment. Low class lived in tenement.
Tenements had the worst conditions and cheapest. Lots of problems came up.
Such as how to get clean water, how to handle human wastes and trashes. As
cities’ populations grew, transportation difficulties arose. In Chicago, there
was a fire during 1871. Then, people understood that they need firefighters.
During this time, blacks who lived in Northern cities were being driven away
to certain part of the city. In between 1880 and 1914, huge number of
immigrants from Europe came to the cities of US. Because of language
difficulty, American didn’t like them at all. The immigrants suffered many
things during that time. They wanted to stop the Chinese and Japanese from
“invading” their country.
In the early 1900’s, the Progressive movement began when muckmaker
started exposing social evils. Theodore Roosevelt was a Progressive and also
a republican. His chosen successor was Taft. But Taft soon disappointed
Roosevelt by backing a new high tariff and by paying little attention to the
country’s natural resources.
At the same time, there were many inventions came out. Ford invented the
first automobile with cheap labor and prices. Wright brothers invented the
airplane. Marshall Field’s department store in Chicago set a model for the
nation. Soon Americans could go to shopping centers. Technological
development change the way people communicate with each other.

Pg. 592

1. World War I was the most bloodiest war in the history at that time. Over 15 millions
were killed. And most of them were dead at disease, starvation’s, exposure. The war cost
over 350 billions dollars.
2. Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism and the assassination of Archduke Framz
3. France, Great Britain, and Russia were in the Triple Entente. Germany,
Austria-Hungary, and Italy were in the Triple Alliance. The purpose of these alliance was
to protect each other to against other enemies.
4. Yes. The assassinated of Ferdinand was just an excuse for them. I think that they
wanted to go to war long ago. They were just waiting for an excuses.

Pg. 597
1. Because Americans believed that war is evil. Most Americans believed that there
were no reason for them to enter war. Either side won doesn’t affect the American
2. Germans designed the Big Bertha against Belgium. This cannon could hurl an
eighteen-hundred-pound shell a distance of nine miles. Both sides added poison gas to
the horrors of war. Those gas burned skin and blinded.
3. Britain included cotton and foodstuffs in the blockade. Wilson stated that the
blockade was ineffective, illegal and indefensible.
4. Peace and progressivism. Wilson kept the Americans out of war. Peace seemed to be
more important because Americans didn’t have to die then.
5. German suggested to Mexico that if German and Mexico ally, German would help
Mexicans to recover the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Then, the
Germans destroyed 4 unarmed American merchant ships.
6. Yes. Because the Germans wanted the Americans to join the war. They did it on
purposes. First they wanted Mexicans to ally with them and invaded America. Next, they
attacked the American ships.

Pg. 603
1. The Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which required all men between the
ages of twenty-one to thirty to register for the draft. Almost 10 million men were
2. The Board improve production by encouraging the use of mass-production
techniques. The Board also did psychological testing to help find the right person for the
right job. Railway and Fuel administration regulated the supplies of coal and oil.
3. One-third of the amount of expenses was raised through taxes. On average, every
adult American lent the government $400.
4. Under the Espionage and Sedition Acts, a person could be fined up to $10,000 or
sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the draft. This against the First
Amendment of Religious and Political Freedom.
5. The United States Navy helped tighten the British blockade around Germany.
Stretching it across the North Sea.
6. Yes. Because American didn’t want to fight at the first place. They fought because
they were forced to do .

Pg. 607
1. The Fourteen Point speech were designed to show other nations that Americans
fought for peace. And it told Americans what were the cause of war.
2. The three problem areas were Germany, Russia, and Southeast Asia. Germany alone
were responsible for World War I. It was kind