A Search for Commitment within the Sexes





Abstract.

In the field of organizational research, there are many worthwhile studies being conducted every day. Each study has its own unique contribution to what is understood and considered to be known about the way we " live, love and work." It was Freud who noted that a healthy person was one able to do these things, but it is not until so recently that an intent on figuring out the world of work was specifically studied.
For the means of the research entailed here, the purpose is to conduct a specific inquiry into the differences in commitment of the male and female in respect to organizations. The area of gender differences is an area that has had much attention through the years, as will be discussed further into this report. What is hoped to be tackled in this research is the basis for other research to come. Research into why the differences exist, if there are any such differences, or into how the differences can be remedied. Since, there are needs within the organizational world for both genders, it is obvious that the time has come for fair and legitimate gender related research to become part of organizational understanding.


















Introduction.

It has already been determined through other organizational studies that commitment is the key construct for examining the match between individuals and organizations (Marsden, Kalleberg and Cook, 1993). What I have interest in is how the attitudinal commitment of employees with different sex in an organization vary, that is, if there is any standard variation at all.
This information would be useful in assessment of where certain changes in policy may need to be made in order to promote attitudinal commitment. Perhaps, the data could also be used to infer the stability of a company at any point in time. Of course, at this point, it is necessary to assert that the purpose of my specific study is to attempt to answer the question "Does a difference in attitudinal commitment exist consistently between men and women?" The questions of why are of further interest to me, but do not bear immediate light on this particular research proposal.
"Organizational commitment is a key construct for examining the match between individuals and organizations. People who are highly committed to their work organizations are willing to devote more effort to the organization, identify more the values of the employer, and to seek maintain affiliation with the organization(Steers, 1997)."
There has never been a shortage of research studies on organizational commitment. It has remained a hot topic since the beginning of searches for improvements on companies. The question of gender differences in relation to commitment, however, is a fairly new topic. In relation to the gender difference itself results have been inconclusive.
The literature review in Moody et al. (1982) cites several studies in support of the claim that "women as a group were found to be more committed than men." (pg. 31). However, Mathieu and Zajac (1990) report a standard deviation of 0.165, and conclude that "there appears to be inconsistent relationship between sex and levels of OC". So the results in this arena are not at a substantially sound ground. What is noted and accepted about organizational growth is that although women represent the majority of new entrants into the labor force and a significant percentage of the many professions (Pillsbury, Cappozoli, and Ciampa, 1989), they often remain underrepresented in the higher ranks of their organizations and professions (Sharp, 1994). The trend in understanding this underrepresentation is that the framework of most organizations lend themselves well to the job satisfaction of men, or to environments to induce commitment in men and not in women, therefore substantially limiting the amount of women in positions that would carry high commitment levels. The models of difference between the sexes are quite interesting and offer many ways of looking at why specific differences in commitment may occur.
There is lots of information found about the reasons that such differences may exist. The above situation of difference in commitment based on the work organizational structure is a function of the job model theory (Aven, et al., 1993), that contends that attitudinal commitment is a function of the work environment. " Building on the