13. Were the Elizabethans more bloodthirsty or tolerant of
violence on stage than we are? In addition to the visible
bloodletting, there is endless discussion of past gory deeds. Offstage
violence is even brought into view in the form of a severed head. It's
almost as though such over-exposure is designed to make it ordinary.
At the same time, consider the basic topic of the play, the usurpation
of the crown of England and its consequences. These are dramatic
events. They can support the highly charged atmosphere of bloody
actions on stage as well as off. By witnessing Clarence's murder,
which has been carefully set up, we develop a greater revulsion for
its instigator. And even though we are spared the sight of the slaying
of the young princes in the Tower, Richard's involvement before and
after is carefully exploited. Every drop of blood referred to on stage
or in the speeches helps build the effect Shakespeare wishes to
achieve. The peace which comes after Richard's death is both a
relief and a reward.

14. The Elizabethan audience knew from the start that Richmond was
to become Henry VII, the first Tudor king of England and the
grandfather of their own queen, Elizabeth I. As such, he had only to
appear victorious at the play's conclusion. By the time he shows up,
matters have progressed to a point where Richard's downfall is
inevitable. But what good would victory be if the opposition had
merely caved in? Shakespeare had to build Richmond's importance not
only to satisfy history but to fulfill the dramatic development of the
plot. By sprinkling his name into the preceding scenes, Shakespeare
makes Richmond's arrival a matter of importance. Once Richmond appears on stage, he never makes a false step or says the wrong thing. If
his dialogue sounds slightly flat, it may be a deliberate contrast
to that of the fiery, passionate Richard. Here is a man of reason
who makes his mark with heroic action rather than words. In the duel
scene, Richmond has an opportunity to achieve the stature denied him
in speech.

1. B 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. B 7. C
8. A 9. C 10. B

11. From the start, Buckingham is only too willing to provide his
support for Richard's schemes. He immediately allies himself with
Richard by scorning his exemption from Margaret's curse. From then on,
he willingly shares the risk for his share of the spoils. Remember,
patronage is an important issue. During Edward IV's reign, Queen
Elizabeth saw to it that her relatives and supporters were taken
care of. Buckingham saw Richard as his key to prosperity. His
insistence on his reward in the face of his hesitation to
participate in the killing of the princes leads to his loss of
Richard's trust- and to his final destiny.

12. The actor playing the role of Richard must have great strength
to endure the demands of being on stage in so many different
situations and for such a long time. But what of the character
Richard? Could he have been the successful warrior he is credited with
being in the past if he were seriously crippled? Could he have
performed the physical demands required by the battle in the final
scenes? If he is "unhorsed," surely he is capable of riding. And
what about his rapid, sudden turns throughout the play? Review the
physical action that must accompany so much of his dialogue and see if
you think his deformity was as much a handicap as a convenient excuse.
The judgment of Hastings is one place where he certainly exploits
it, but see if you can find others.

13. From the beginning, Richard develops an intimate association
with the audience as he shares his innermost thoughts. Couched as a
sort of "confessional," he confides that he is going to behave
wickedly. As such, he virtually invites the audience to come along
with him as he proceeds with his business. Periodically, he reviews
and recaptures that spirit. Margaret, on the other hand, treats the
audience as more of a witness than a partner. She speaks less in
soliloquies than in choral recitations. Because so much of
Margaret's presence is a symbolic as well as