10.2 Revival of Monarchy
Monarchs are getting more and more power.
France
Charles VII created an army under his own control. Prosperous Burgundy wanted by Louis XI. After Charles death in 1477 southern Burgundy goes to France. Louis XI efforts making a strong monarchy succeed.
England
Constitutional monarchy. Change of dynasty. 1477 struggle for the throne between Lancaster (red rose) vs. York (white rose). York with leader Edwards overthrows the Lancaster dynasty. Edward VI dies in 1483. His brother proclaims himself a king- Richard III. Henry Tudor, a Lancaster defeats Richard in the battle of Bosworth Field, becoming a king Henry VII and founding the Tudor dynasty, which ruled until 1603. Marrying Elizabeth (York) he united the country. Monarchy became stronger but still was very limited by Parliament.
Spain
1400- Spain emerged as a power. 1000-1200 Christian kingdoms of northern Spain got almost all country back from Moors (Reconquista). Three Christians kingdoms emerged- Portugal, Castile and Aragon which later on united. The last Muslim spot left was principality of Granada. Religious preferences to Christians gave a better land and right to govern kingdoms to the Christians. Monarchy is limited by nobles, religious leaders, cortes. Fueros- a special royal charter. 1469 Prince Ferdinand of Aragon married Issabela of Castile. Sending officials known as corregidores they strengthened the power of monarchs. 1492 their army gets Granada. Same year the Jews are ordered to turn to Christianity or move out of Spain, same happens to Moors 10 years later. To force law in life the Inquisition is created. It does itís job strengthening the monarchy, but it also causes all good brains move out of Spain and isolates Spain from the rest of Europe.
Holy Roman Empire
Extremely weak monarchy ruled by a king elected by German diets. Weak kings didnít include Charles IV in early 1300ís, who in 1356 further limited the power of monarch by decreasing the number of diets to seven. Hapsburgs gained the control over the throne in early 1400ís. Maximilian I was one of the most ambitious emperors gaining the Low countries by marrying Mary of Burgundy.
Poland
Was formed in 900ís by West Slavs. 1000-1300 period of disunity and warfare. Teutonic knights from Germany took advantage of it. They established a sea ports on Baltic. King Casimir III ((1333-1370) of Poland established a strong central government. He gave shelter to Jews. 1386 Queen Jadwiga married Vladislav Jagiello of Lithuania that united both countries. 1410 their army defeated and stopped German expansion into Poland in the battle of Tannenburg.
Hungary
1000 King Stephen I introduced Catholicity to his people. His dynasty of Arpads ruled Hungary until 1301. Anjou took over the throne. Their king Louis I strengthened the monarchy. Governed after his death by weak rulers country was mostly governed by nobles. John Hunyadi stopped Turks and his son Matthias Corvinus became a king of Hungary in 1458. He set up a strong bureaucracy. His death in 1490 ended the prosperous for Hungary age and Turks conquered it in 1526.
Scandinavia
Norway Sweden and Denmark united. Vikings accepted Christianity and created writing. Disputes among themselves weakened their influence in Baltic. That was taken by the series of German seaports known as Hanseatic League. In 1357 Margrethe I became queen of Denmark and later Norway and Sweden. They created a Kalmar Union that was dominated by Danes. Sweden left the union in 1523.
Economic Growth
In mid 1400ís new inventions increased trade and wealth among European cities.
Metals
Developing new skills of metal work European craftsmen created a first mechanical clock that brought some order to their lives. Needing more and more metal caused new inventions to appear. Need to dipper the mines cause people to drain the inside water. A lot of silver coins were made and money now stimulated the trade.
Printing
1440 German craftsman Johann Gutenberg invented the movable metal type. That caused a cheaper and faster way to reprint books. Books now made not rich people educated and they also spread the new ideas.