Philosophy

Ebonics is the name given to what linguists refer to as BE (Black English) or African American Vernacular English1. Black English has been around since the time of slavery and the slave trade in the United States. It is a mixture of West African languages (such as Ibo, Yoruba, and Hausa) and English which has been passed down from generation to generation of African Americans . The use of ebonics has revitalized in popularity among many African American students in California schools. This has
Compared to the technologically advanced theatres of today, the Globe theatre was extremely limited in its resources. Although lighting, scenery, curtains, and roofing is expected in the theatres of today, it wasn't even thought of during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, or the Elizabethan age. Even without all of these features, Shakespeare's writing style was great enough to make going to the theatre an experience one would never forget. Shakespeare had to show the time of day by using speech r
Idealistically minded, Candide has a tendency to expect the best outcome in any circumstance and Voltaire encourages this optimism. Voltaire intends that the general goodness of the world prevails over the coexisting evil. Although Candide took an optimistic view to support himself when encountered with calamity, his optimism was devastated by ignorance and credulity. His consequent miseries were conciliated by Pangloss's philosophy that the greater the individual hardship, the greater is the gr
Trends in drug use among youth are indirectly attributable to trends in society. Although drugs have always been around in one form or another, their early influences on society trace back to just before the 1930’s. Marijuana was a popular drug among Mexican laborers, jazz musicians, and so-called beatniks. Then after major social changes that took place in 1930, "The government cracked down on marijuana use." "In 1937, the Marijuana Tax Act…made the use and sale of marijuana without a tax stamp
Macbeth was written while when Scotland lacked a good Leader to defend it from a Norwasian invasion. During this dangerous situation, Macbeth stood out as the most commanding figure by defeating the rebel army. His thrill towards the witches' prophecies all confirmed his hopes of becoming the King and replacing King Duncan, who lacked the power and courage to save his country from this invasion. In this essay, I will discuss Macbeth during the many experiences that he had faced and come across a
"The union of the Roman empire was dissolved; its genius was humbled in the dust; and armies of unknown barbarians, issuing from the frozen regions of the North, had established their victorious reign over the fairest provinces of Europe and Africa." Edward Gibbon "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" Scholars of Late Antiquity have long labored under the shadow of two monumental works: Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1787) and M. I. Rostovtzeff's Social and Economic Histo
How did the work of the saints affect the people of the time? The work of the saints affected the people of that time in incredible ways and in some instances there work is still affecting us now. In the following essay there will be various Saints listed with there accomplishments and brief description of there past. One of the more popular Saints of our time, was Saint Nicholas, who became a Christian prelate that lived in the late 4th century. Patron saint of Russia, traditionally associated
The Human Conscience by Butler In the "Five Sermons," Joseph Butler emphasizes the importance of reflection and conscience in human nature. Butler belives that humans are not "simply collections of desires and aversions of internal forces" that develop in a systematic fashion (Butler 4). Therefore, he identifies humans as a psychological system that relies on reflection or conscience to analyze and justify actions. He also addresses the authoritative role of the conscience in moral decisions. Bu
Introduction The Republican Party, since its first convention in Michigan in 1854, has had a philosophy that has remained relatively unchanged. Its oath entices Americans to believe that "good government is based on the individual and that each person's ability, dignity, freedom and responsibility must be honored and recognized" How do the Republican philosophies hold up to the ideas of some of the political thinkers that we have discussed in class. In the selection to follow, I will examine th
The American Heritage Dictionary defines nihilism as an extreme form of skepticism that denies all existence and that the world or one's mind, body, or self does not exist. Nihilism was a revolutionary movement of mid 19th- century Russia that scorned authority and tradition and believed in reason, materialism, and radical change in society and government. Ivan Turgenev writes Fathers and Sons which contains characters who are proclaimed nihilists who represent the new and young generation of Ru
Irish Republican Army and the Hizbollah When a person uses a bomb to kill or assassinates a Prime Minister, President, or some Political leader, they are committing an act of terrorism. The definition of terrorism is when the use of violence to create fear and alarm. Terrorist groups support a particular political philosophy. Often terrorist organizations represent ethnic group seeking liberation from governments in power. Generally, terrorists attack people who oppose their cause or objects tha
When the name Thomas Jefferson is mentioned, various images and thoughts come to mind. President of the United States, scholar, humanist, religious freedom advocate, father of democracy, and a Renaissance man. Jefferson is such an integral character in our nation's history, and his contributions to our country are limitless. One fact, however, that some people may not realize about this great statesman is that he was a master architect, who designed his famous home, Monticello, and the Universit
Common Problem. Different Solutions. Tibetan and Western medical practices each have their own particular strengths and weaknesses which make them unique. Tibetan medicine draws on natural methods to heal, while modern techniques in the west rely on machines and technology. Some might agree that such medical equipment is necessary, and increases the efficiency and healing ability of western doctors, one must not discount the Tibetan claims of being able to diagnose patients with a greater degree
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German economist, philosopher, and revolutionist whose writings form the basis of the body of ideas known as Marxism. With the aid of Friedrich Engels, he produced much of the theory of modern Socialism and Communism. As a student at the University of Berlin, young Marx was strongly influenced by the philosophy of George Hegal and by a radical group called Young Hegelians, who attempted to apply Hegelian ideas to the movement against organized religion and the Prussian
Christian Spain from the 700's to the 1500's was dominated by the interplay of two opposing forces: the idea of an ultimate Christian conquest of the whole peninsula and that the Christian and Islamic peoples of Spain had become irretrievably associated with each other. In the early 700's, the Muslims crossed the straits and defeated Roderic, the last Gothic king. In the next few years the Muslims took over almost all of Spain except for a remote region. Because the Muslims enjoyed the fertile p
Poetry is a form of art. It paints a picture of your thoughts and feelings. Personally my favorite types are romantic poems. Every writer has their own unique style and expresses their love and feelings differently. The reader can transform their thoughts and problems and into a new world. "Romance seems the expression of nostalgia, a mood of yearning for something different from what life offers."(Untermeyer 65) Each verse is different. Every century, poems have been composed. The poems of the
By examining William Shakespeare’s plays Romeo and Juliet, The Merchant of Venice, and Much Ado About Nothing, one can formulate an idea of his philosophy of marriage. Through recurring events presented in these three works, you can infer that he has distinct opinions of matrimony. One theme in Shakespeare’s plays is that of love at first sight. This phenomenon occurs to both Romeo and Juliet and Hero and Claudio in Much ado About Nothing, who were both eventually married. Romeo and Juliet were
Throughout history, women always seem to get set on the back burner. Men have written history and there hasn't been much room for women. Or has there been. If one takes a look at the Buddhist religion, they will find that women have not always been second-rate citizens as they have in more recent history. In order to understand what has happened to the freedoms women once had in Buddhism, let's first get a brief overview of Buddhism, then we'll look at women in the beginnings of Buddhism, then w
When people hear the word Buddhism, many times its name reflects stereotypes and misunderstandings. Typically people will think of Chinese and Japanese monks in strict meditaion, however Buddhism is really a generic term for various philosophic, religious, ethical, and sociological forms based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha. They come from the main doctrine of the Four Noble Truths which says that there is suffering (which may more accurately be ‘frustration’), suffering has a cause, the cau
INTRODUCTION Many adults who graduate from high school immediately enter careers that do not require a college degree. Indeed, the majority of the adult population of the United States of America does not have college degrees. And the lack of degree is not a stigma. Vocations usually do not require degrees. Certainly the many trade vocations in the building industry do not require college degrees, but instead either vocational training, on-the-job training, and combinations of both. The same ap
"I was from the beginning scandalised, I must own, with this resemblance between the Deity and human creatures." --Philo David Hume wrote much about the subject of religion, much of it negative. In this paper we shall attempt to follow Hume's arguments against Deism as Someone knowable from the wake He allegedly makes as He passes. This kind of Deism he lays to rest. Then, digging deeper, we shall try our hand at a critique of his critique of religion, of resurrecting a natural belief in God. F
The Stranger Camus, Albert. The Stranger (L’Etranger). Penguin Books, London, 1969. The Stranger is the story of Patrice Meursault, a young bachelor growing up in French Algeria. In many ways, he lives a normal life for single man in his twenties: working as a clerk in an office; hanging out with the various local characters, and picking up girls at the local swimming pool. However, behind this seemingly normal facade he is very different from anyone else. Meursault does not have any of the ‘no
Defining "Alcoholics Anonymous" Following is the definition of A.A. appearing in the Fellowship’s basic literature and cited frequently at meetings of A.A. groups: Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength, and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues of fees for A.A. membership; they are self-suppor
History and Philosophy of Medicine : Bodies in History Examine the ways in which psycho-social and sexual problems became medicalised in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Were men and women affected differently by this process? A typical approach to the examination of the history of medicine involves constructing a time line upon which are placed a series of ‘breakthroughs’ which are judged for their contribution to current knowledge. This purely technical rationale does not provide
Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X grew up in different environments. King was raised in a comfortable middle-class family where education was stressed. On the other hand, Malcolm X came from and underprivileged home. He was a self-taught man who received little schooling and rose to greatness on his own intelligence and determination. Martin Luther King was born into a family whose name in Atlanta was well established. Despite segregation, Martin Luther King’s parents ensured that their chil
Herman Melville "If at my death, my executors, or more properly my creditors, find any precious MSS. in my desk, then here I propectively ascribe all the honor and the glory to whaling; for a whaleship was my Yale College and my Harvard."(Melville 24). Throughout history American authors have written countless essays and songs, poems and plays, novels and short stories which have led to the great accomplishment of Amercian Literature. However since it emerged from its crude colonial beginnings
Elizabeth Candy Stanton was one of the most outspoken and controversial political philosophers of the mid-eighteen hundreds. Stanton was not only a strong supporter of womens suffrage, but a strong supporter for improved womens rights. Elizabeth Candy Stanton sought to change laws that took away liberties from married women, as well as laws that left divorced women poor and without their children. Although Elizabeth Candy Stanton is remembered mostly for her work in the womens suffrage movement
Robert Frost Robert Frost gives us The Gift Outright as a representation of our earliest roots as Americans on this prized land stretching from sea to shining sea. He says that this wonderful continent is a gift that had our name on it for a long time before we claimed it. He patriotically states that it was our planned destiny to have gained freedom from British rule over the colonies. This poem which was used as the inaugural address for John F. Kennedy is essentially a national anthem that pr
Slaughterhouse Five Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., was written as a general statement against all wars. The novel can be divided into several distinct stories all combined to convey one theme. The major theme focuses around the central character of Billy Pilgrim before, during, and after the war. Vonnegut himself plays a major role in the novel as narrator and witness of World War II. The difficulties in the writing of the actual novel itself are also examined in the novel. All of t
Aristotle Prior to a look at Aristotle's ethics, I feel it is important to look at the man and his background. Aristotle, an Ionian, was born in Stagira, a Greek town on the northwest shores of the Aegean Sea in 384 B.C. At the age of eighteen he entered Plato's school called the Academy, staying there for nearly twenty years. Plato was quick to realize Aristotle's abilities and called him the Academy's "brightest and most learned student". While there he wrote "popular writings" for general di
For Art’s Sake For an artist, whether he is a painter or a sculptor, art is an effective medium for him to express his innermost sentiments, very similar to how one’s handwriting is often used to interpret the character of an individual. Art allows the artist to unleash his creativity, which is fueled by his passions and his environment. Often, an artist’s work is a personal interpretation of the pulse or character of his period. Sometimes, his works are so great that it captures the spirit of t
Political Correctness is Numbing Political Correctness has, in the last few years, mutated from a useful instrument for enlightenment and change into a symbol of public and private views gone awry. This controversial philosophy is used by some special interests as a platform to force radical and often illogical teachings into the classrooms of colleges and universities across the U.S.. Unlike the abortion issue or the federal deficit which are very present forces guiding our national thought, p
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was a busy man. He lived from 1743 to 1826. Jefferson was an American revolutionary leader, author of the Declaration of Independence, political philosopher. and the third president of the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson was born on the 13th of April 1743, at Shadwell, Virginia. His father was an owner of a large plantation where he lived until he went to the college of William and Mary in the early 1760s. There he studied law under George Wythe. He w
Is your life worth living? Why? Many of the greatest philosophers of all time ask these questions in many forms, two of which I intend to talk about here: What is the connection between Socrates’ challenge to examine ourselves, and Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, and is bettering ourselves desirable and obtainable for the common man, or just for an intellectual elite. First off, what is the connection between Socrates challenge and Plato’s Allegory? I believe it is that both feel we should better
Dante's Inferno Dante Alighieri, one of the greatest poets of the Middle Ages, was born in Florence, Italy on June 5, 1265. He was born to a middle-class Florentine family. At an early age he began to write poetry and became fascinated with lyrics. During his adolescence, Dante fell inlove with a beautiful girl named Beatrice Portinari. He saw her only twice but she provided much inspiration for his literary masterpieces. Her death at a young age left him grief-stricken. His first book, La Vita
The focus of Marx’s philosophical writings is alienation. He believes that social or psychological alienation arises out of economic or material alienation. In other words, consciousness is determined by material conditions, as opposed to the prevailing view of his day that said that consciousness determines material conditions. Another way of saying the same thing is, "Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life." One’s material conditions in life result from one’s labor
Page 1 “The book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, is thought of as a fantastic, even fanatic, representation of Southern life, most memorable for its emotional oversimplification of the complexities of the slave system,” says Gossett (4). Harriet Beecher Stowe describes her own experiences or ones that she has witnessed in the past through the text in her novel. She grew up in Cincinnati where she had a very close look at slavery. Located on the Ohio River across from the slave state of Kentucky, the city w
Religions When studying history, both in a professional and academic sense, we try to make connections between civilizations and time periods. Historians have attempted to discover universal constants of human nature, a bond that forms from continent to continent, human being to human being. Is there a constant quality that all peoples posses, and is reflected in all civilizations? Indeed, it is extremely difficult to make generalizations about centuries of modern history. To say that something
done-nov29...edited-dec7 Cicero, was truly a man of the state. His writings also show us he was equally a man of philosophical temperament and affluence. Yet at times these two forces within Cicero clash and contradict with the early stoic teachings. Cicero gradually adopted the stoic lifestyle but not altogether entirely, and this is somewhat due to the fact of what it was like to be a roman of the time. The morals of everyday Rome conflicted with some of the stoic ideals that were set by earl
Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) was a genious, spiritual leader and humanitarian who introduced a concept of nonviolent civil disobedience to the political world. He was to become the leader of one of the century’s major advances in his struggle for Indian rights and independence (Ahmedabad 97). Gandhi was born into a powerful family which belonged to the Hindu merchant caste Vaisya (Gandhi The End of an Empire). For several generations members of his family had served as Prime Ministers of Indian
Albert Einstein from Start to Finish Albert Einstien was born on March 14, 1879 in Alum, Germany. He was born with extreme deformities, however he out grew them except for his misshapen head. He was a late talker to add to his problems. He was branded as a loner because he had no love for anyone but his mother who he spent all of his childhood with. He was also considered a Jeckell and Hide. Albert Einstein was considered mentally retarded as a young child. This was because he simply chose to d
Kant wants to avoid the skeptical attack by excluding experience from his judgements. By doing so, he makes an attempt at evaluating moral acts in themselves (a priori), without any prior knowledge (a posteriori). This allowed him to avoid the empiricists of his time as they claimed that all of our knowledge, as well as our morality, stemmed from experience. His philosophical project was this: to find an a priori morality that did not rely on experience or prior knowledge, rather one that depen
To Kill a Mockingbird is definitely an excellent novel in that it portrays life and the role of racism in the 1930's. A reader may not interpret several aspects in and of the book through just the plain text. Boo Radley, Atticus, and the title represent three such things. Not really disclosed to the reader until the end of the book, Arthur "Boo" Radley plays an important role in the development of both Scout and Jem. In the beginning of the story, Jem, Scout, and Dill fabricated horror stories
Alexander the Great, a patient and often devious man; had never struck without careful planning. The youthful, headstrong Alexander liked to settle problems by immediate action. Making decisions with great speed, he took extraordinary risks; his success was achieved by the amount of sheer force and drive to overcome these risks. Alexander was one of the greatest and most courageous fighters in the world. He was educated as a student by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. The philosopher imbued Ale
Although the boundaries of law affect our lives on a daily basis, and our own society continually uses legal coercion as a means to modify human behavior, the very notion of such binding human guidelines is testament to the evolution of secular thought. The evolution of “legal positivism,” which can be defined as tangible procedural law, created by man, codified and conventional, has emerged with mankind’s ability to distinguish between secular and divine authority. To understand the difference
One Thousand Years of Chinese Footbinding: Its Origins, Popularity and Demise March 7, 1998 In addressing the subject of footbinding, one primary difficulty becomes apparent - that much remains within the realm of the unknowable. Any factual knowledge about the practice may only be drawn from 19th- and 20th-century writings, drawings or photographs. In addition, many of these documents represent a distinctly Western point of view, as they are primarily composed of missionary accounts and the li
PATTERNS OF IMAGERY IN MACBETH Shakespeare's Macbeth is full of different types of imagery. Many of these images are themes that run throughout the entire play at different times. Five of these images are nature, paradoxes, manhood, masks and light vs. darkness. Nature: "Thunder and lightning." This is the description of the scene before Act I, Scene i, Line 1. The thunder and lightning represent disturbances in nature. Most people do not think of a great day being filled with thunder and light
"Woe be to thee, O Constantinople, seated on seven hills, thou shall not continue a thousand years." What made the majority of people in Constantinople believe in prophecies saying that the city would not last forever and that they are doomed? In the years before the Turkish conquest it was known that the reign of anti-Christ could not long be delayed. What made the proud people and ancestors of the Roman Empire lose all hope and will to react? After withstanding 22 previous sieges, the first i
Martin Luther King Jr Martin Luther King Jr. was a fine and strong man and should be viewed as such, along with other American heroes, such as Abraham Lincoln, and George Washington. He truly believed in his philosophy till his death. Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January 19, 1929, to Albert and Martin Luther King Sr. He was the second child in the family, with an older sister, and a younger brother coming later. As a boy, Martin was extremely smart, and could read before the age of six. H
I. Form and Content Long-time friend and literary executor of the Lewis estate, Owen Barfield has suggested that there were, in fact, three "C. S. Lewises." That is to say, there were three different vocations that Lewis fulfilled--and fulfilled successfully--in his lifetime. There was, first, Lewis the distinguished Oxford don and literary critic; secondly, Lewis, the highly acclaimed author of science fiction and children's literature; and thirdly, Lewis, the popular writer and broadcaster of